On the rocky promontory of Pamvotis Lake lies Ioannina, its fortress punctuated by mosques and minarets whose reflections, along with those of the snowy peaks of the Pindos range, appear in the calm water. The lake contains tiny Nissi, or "island," where nightingales still sing and fishermen mend their nets (and now noted as the hometown of Karolos Papoulias, a former [2005–15] president of the Greek Republic). Although on first impression parts of the city may seem noisy and undistinguished, the Old Quarter preserves a rich heritage. Outstanding examples of folk architecture remain within the castle walls and in the neighborhoods surrounding them; Ioannina's historic mansions, folk houses, seraglios, and bazaars are a reminder of the city's illustrious past. Set at a crossroads of trading, the city is sculpted by Balkan, Ottoman, and Byzantine influences. Thanks to a resident branch of the Greek national university, today the bustling provincial capital city (population 100,000) has a thriving contemporary cultural scene (and a proliferation of good restaurants and popular bars). Things get particularly lively the first two weeks of July, when the city's International Folk Festival takes place.
The name Ioannina was first documented in 1020 and may have been taken from an older monastery of St. John. Founded by Emperor Justinian in AD 527, Ioannina suffered under many rulers: it was invaded by the Normans in 1082, made a dependency of the Serbian kingdom in 1345, and conquered by the Turks in 1431. Above all, this was Ali Pasha's city, where, during its zenith, from 1788 to 1821, the despot carved a fiefdom from much of western Greece. His territory extended from the Ionian Sea to the Pindos range and from Vaona in the north to Arta in the south. The Turks ended his rule in 1821 by using deception to capture him; Ali Pasha was then shot and decapitated by Greek monks.